Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Parts to make maze solving robot

To make a simple autonomous maze solving robot, you need following parts:

1. An MCU 89c51 - 40 INR
2. PCB, capacitor, resistance, etc -- 50 INR
3. L293d (DC motor driver) -- 60 INR
4. IR or LDR sensors -- 30 to 100 INR
5. Small DC motors -- 2 pcs -- 400 INR
6. Batteries - 10 to 50 INR

I think these are the basic things. For any difficulty getting these parts, contact Hobby Shops in your area or search online.

How to build a line following robot?

In order to build a simple line following robot, you need three basic parts:

1. Sensors
2. Some decision block (Microcontrollers/Dogital Logic)
3. Motor Drivers and Motors

1. For the sensor part, you can use

a) LDR and comparators - This method is the easiest and mostly used but greatly affected by ambient lights.
b) IRLed & TSOP sensors - This method is more robust.




2. For Decision block use any microcontroller according to your needs.

3. Mainly two types of motors are used

a) Stepper motors give you more accuracy but less speed and torque (we don't recommend because speed is a great factor in the competitions). You can drive stepper motors with ULN 2003 IC.
b) DC motors give your great speed and torque. Even accuracy can be available with good programming. ULN2003 can be used for unidirectional driving. For bidirectional driving, please use L293D / L298.

Best of luck.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

How to download free music?

For many years, with the advent of Mp3 you can store music in less space on our computers so downloading music over the Internet or “download music” has become a common thing and is widely known to many, but this article is intended for those who are starting on this subject and do not know what this is or which program to use and do not know whether this activity is legal or not.

To understand how this whole thing works requires some prior information. For this you need to go back in the past when the whole thing began to be overcrowded over the Internet, through peer to peer networks or in simple words P2P networks, which are nothing more than programs that allow a large number of Internet users to share files over a network. The idea was that once you are connected to these networks using a music download software or program, you can download music to your computer. In simple words, the music files which you were receiving on your system would have been available at that time on the computer of other users.

Napster songs was one of the oldest P2P sharing sites that become extremely popular around the world and eventually everyone was able to find their favorite song they want on that network. This was the time when this site was on top of its popularity. Of course this was not able to last, and this along with other similar networks began to have enormous legal problems with the record labels, and the system evolved into a pay-per-song online, to a value as will be fully acceptable.

If anything is still possible to download large amounts of free music networks such as Lime Wire and Morpheus, which is not always illegal. These performers often unreleased versions or special permit to be distributed by the Internet, and also run versions for promotional purposes. Using these services is easy: visit your website, download the necessary application for free in our computer, and run this program have access to all available issues (to find a particular song you can try connecting at different times, as user who owns the track that we may not be connected at any given time). Now, that can still be found in these networks a lot of original music by these artists is protected by copyright, and downloading these songs a disservice to artists and individuals employed in the music industry. It is left to each individual the moral dilemma of lowering or not these issues, as we shall see the legal music downloading is easy, economical and also protect our computers from infection, so no excuse for breaking the law in this area.

For those wishing to download music legally on the Internet, there are a variety of services extremely attractive and also highly recommended, using them make sure we get the music formats of high quality, uncut and what is even more important, we protected from downloading viruses from uncontrolled networks. One of the characteristics of these systems is that they are P2P, that is all music is stored on the provider's servers. One of the best known, and has revolutionized the music industry is to Itunes, introduced in 2001 at the hands of Apple Computers. Although it is thought to interact with the famed iPod, the truth is that it allows anyone (to listen on your computer or other device other than the iPod) to purchase items (from a selection amazingly enough, from rock, pop, Latin and classical music more alternatives to the slopes) for about a dollar or less. The only problem is that when the service is restricted to certain countries only.

Another very popular legal platform, and otherwise inexpensive (only a few cents per song) to download music, is offered "Allofmp3, a Russian based service. This country has the peculiarity that legally allows the distribution of music as long as compensation is paid to the record label a percentage of the sale, which makes the download prices extremely competitive. And the service is available to everyone. To use this service will not need to download special programs. (Update to article: by 2008, Allofmp3 is MP3Sparks has passed, for those looking for this music download service, with the same characteristics).

Now if we wish to see music videos, just visit YouTube, a service for sharing video files, and operates similarly to other networks. It's free and it requires no special software to download (as long as our computer is current with respect to the media.) The amount of available music videos is amazing, from the home to the established artists. For obvious reasons is that they have begun legal problems, not known to what end it all. For now you can enjoy the service without restrictions, in addition, by using programs like Youtube Catcher, you may download these videos or audio track to the computer, then to play your content offline.

Returning to the paid services I have mentioned, they also allow free music downloads within a limited selection from time to time on a promotional to attract new users. For all these reasons we see that there are options for all tastes, and the rest is pretty straightforward. We might even find that song you never find in traditional record labels.

Friday, March 18, 2011

What is the history of computers?


First of all, we should define what is a computer for further research on its history is understood as a machine able to manipulate information according to a predetermined list of instructions, the ability to run this list of instructions or "software" is what distinguishes them from calculators.

It is difficult to establish what were the early history of the computer, since the very definition of what a computer has evolved, and devices that were once called "computers" today would not be labeled as such. In the opinion of many, the first computer by today's standards, that is the first electronic digital and was created by John Atanassoff between 1933 and 1942. For full details of this invention, you can read our article "Who invented the computer?".

The first models, as just mentioned, come from the forties, although the computer concept come from many years earlier. In fact the term before the digital age is related to performing calculations with the help of mechanical devices like the abacus, the astrolabe and the slide rule and the concept of mechanically assisted calculation can be found in history since the 150 BC, so there was no way he is new era we live. Now if we annotate our historical research to devices capable of being "programmed", we find that one of the first precursor mechanisms in our history dating back to 1800. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard, inventor and manufacturer of hats, was responsible for a breakthrough in creating the "Jacquard loom", using punch cards to create different and creative patterns on her loom, the punch cards are a primitive form programmability.

Charles Babbage in 1837, invented a mechanical programmable computer called "analytical engine", but due to financial problems and design, never built. Although he had, for many it would have been by today's standards the first computer, as it was not electronic.

During the 1890 census in the United States, first conducted large-scale processing of information using punch cards in conjunction with tabulating machines, manufactured by the corporation "Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, which later became the well known IBM.

Just between 1930 and 1950, the history of the computer as this really started and created the true precursor of today's models, with features that make them recognizable by today's standards: In 1941 Konrad Zuse creates electromechanical machine called "Z3 "were the first machines capable of processing binary arithmetic, and for some it was the first computer to meet the parameters of a" Turing complete "standard studied in computer science. As mentioned earlier, in 1941 arises Atanassoff-Berry Computer, which used vacuum tubes. In 1944 the British created the computer "Colossus" in order to decipher the German messages.

In 1946 the Ballistic Research Laboratory U.S. created the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), which was the first programmable digital computer in history on a large scale, capable of addressing a range of computational problems. It was built to make artillery calculations. While this was already common features with modern computers, was inflexible and required permanent restructuring to change their programming. Some developers of it, created a flexible design, called "von Neumann architecture" in honor of the great mathematician who first proposed it in 1945. The ability to store programs, this architecture we have mentioned, is the common feature of these early prototypes with modern machines.

During the 50 computers were built using these principles, based on vacuum tubes, and therefore used large physical space to operate (the size of several rooms). Following the story line, the replacement of these tubes by the transistor, in the 1960's, allowed to make computers smaller, faster, and affordable, leading to commercial computing.

For the decade of the 70s, the advent of integrated circuits and then microprocessors (the first commercial microprocessor was the Intel 4004) caused a revolution in terms of size, speed and cost. On reaching the 1980, computers were already built into appliances and other everyday devices, and are amplified while the concept of "personal computer" or household. With the help of the massification of the Internet in the 90's, personal computers have become so common goods such as television and telephone.

History and the generations of computers

Another way of tabulating and understand the history of the computer is divided into "generations" of them, grouped according to their outstanding technical characteristics for each season. The first generation, between 1951 and 1958, was characterized by the use of vacuum tubes, which gave a great size to these models, which also generated a lot of heat when operating.

The second generation (1959 - 1964), was characterized by the use of the transistor, which gave computers faster, and made them smaller. Instead of using punch cards and revolving drums, computers of this generation magnetic cores used to store information. It also introduced programming languages ​​such as COBOL.

The third generation of computers (1964 - 1971) was born with the invention of integrated circuits on silicon wafers, which allowed the grouping of thousands of miniature electronic components. The machines of this era were even smaller, faster and cheaper. It also began to use magnetic tapes to store information.

For the history of the computer, the fourth generation (1971 - 1981) is marked by two technological advances: the use of chips to store information, and the possibility of integrating an even greater number of electronic components on the same chip. Displayed the first microcomputers, IBM, and based on the known processor 8088, and including the popular Pentium (I, II, II, ..) and Celeron.

The fifth generation (1982 - 1989) stands out from the former by the creation in 1982 by Seymouy Cray's first computer with parallel processing capability. During this period also formalized efforts to the development of Artificial Intelligence, mainly driven by the Japanese government for his project "Fifth Generation."

The sixth generation (1990 to present) is characterized by the increasing power of computers to enable simultaneous operation of hundreds of microprocessors, the development and massive application of networks, and integration of the Internet.

As we can see, dividing the history of computer generations is quite arbitrary, especially for the fifth and sixth generation, where the boundaries between them are unclear and seem to blend, but remains a useful resource for understanding the historical context in exciting world of computing.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Money Grows on Hubs Personal Finance Articles

Money Grows on Hubs Contest January 2011 

Main Topic Personal Finance - 60 Entries.

Day 30 - Bonus Topic - Income and Making Money - Two Contributions

Benefits and Challenges of Being Self-Employed
Multiple Ways of Making Money with Investments

Day 21 - Bonus Topic - Budget Planning - Three Contributions

Budgeting To Pay Debt: How to Plan a Budget to Start Paying Debt
Indian Stocks And Shares: How Stockbrokers Cheat Buyers?
Stock Market Trading: Best Trading Strategies in the Stock Market

Day 20 - Bonus Topic - Cutting Costs - No Contribution

Day 19 - Bonus Topic - Budget Friendly Holiday Tips - Single Contribution

Budget Friendly Holiday Tips for Single Mothers - Single Mom Vacations on a Budget

Day 18 - Random Topic - Single Contribution
4 Methods to Master Personal Finances - 6 Secrets of Financial Success for Beginners

Day 17 - Random Topics - Six Contributions
Benefits of Buying Property Vs Property Rentals In Singapore
Insurance India: Basic Rules of Investment In Insurance...
Homeowners Insurance - Facts about Insuring Your Home in...
Three Simple Ways to Save Money
Eleven Money Saving Tips For Indian Women in Singapore
Life Insurance Comparison India - LIC Jeevan Aastha Policy...

Day 16 - Bonus Topic - Budgeting for Families
3 Ways of Budgeting For Families
Teaching Children About Value Of Money

Day 15 - Bonus Topic - Budgetting for College Students
7 ways of budgeting for college students

Day 14 - Bonus Topic - Saving For A House - My Two Contributions
Saving for a house - How to save to buy a house
House Hunting Tips for Singapore Expats - Buying a Resale...

Day 13 - Bonus Topic - Saving For College - My Four contributions
Four Simple Ways to Save for College
529 Investment Plan - Save For College - Beat The Taxman
Reliance Money Banking and Financial Services Analysis
Thanedar - A Perfect Budget Friendly Vacation Near Delhi

Day 12 - Bonus Topic - Retirement Planning - My Six contributions
Nine Tips on Saving For Retirement
High Yield Retirement Plan - NSC or Mutual Fund Investment
Best Retirement Plan for Indians - NPS - New Pension Scheme
Retirement Planning - Chasing Long-Term Financial Goals
NPS Retirement - An Efficient Engine for Capital Growth
Retirement Planning - Senior Citizen Schemes without...

Day 11 - Bonus Topic - Saving for a car - My two contributions
Ways To Save Money On Present Car To Buy Next Car
Money Savings and Investment For College Students

Bonus Topic Day 10 - Saving for a wedding - My Single Contribution
Wedding On A Budget - Saving Money On A Wedding

Bonus Topic Day 9 - Investing Basics - My Four Contributions
Nine Tips To Protect Your Credit Report From Identity Theft
Mutual Fund India Facts - Four Rules for a Profitable...
Elss Mutual Fund: Dividend Reinvestment Vs Growth Option
Reliance Money Demat, Transfers, Commodities, Mutual Fund...

Bonus Topic Day 8 - Financial Planning - My two hubs
Personal Financial Planning - My 3 Cents Worth
Financial Planning Is Not Limited To Mutual Fund Investments

Bonus Topic Day 7 - Tax and Taxes - My 3 Contributions
Tax on Mutual Fund Investment
Income Tax on Equity and Debt Funds for Dividend and Growth
Tax Saving - Different Ways People Convert Black to White Money

Bonus Topic Day 6 - Debt & Bankruptcy - My 4 Contributions
How much to save, how much to spend for young people?
Good Debt Vs Bad Debt
Paying Off Debt with Hubpages Income
Best Use of Extra Money - Investing Versus Paying off...

Bonus Topic Day 5 - Home Loans - My 3 Contributions
Getting a Home Loan - Facts for Real Estate Investors in India
Difference Between HELOC Vs Reverse Mortgage Vs Flip Loans
Five advantages of taking a home loan for rent payers

Bonus Topic Day 4 - Car Loans - My Two Contributions
Are you eligible for getting a car loan in India?
Things to do before applying for a car loan top up

Bonus Topic Day 3 - Student Loans - My 5 Contributions
Step By Step Student Loan Process For Pursuing Higher Education
Facts About Student Loans in India
A Complete Guide to Student Loans in India
Getting a student loan in India and US
Problems Associated With Getting Student Loans In India

Bonus Topic Day 2 - Credit Cards - My Three Contributions
How to cancel ICICI Bank Credit Card?
Paying off major credit card debt
Bank Cards - Understanding Credit Cards vs Debits Cards

Bonus Topic Day 1 - Understanding Finance - My Five Contributions
Step Up Risks for Investors - Where Are You
Lack of Planning is the Most Common Financial Mistake
Best Ways to Improve Personal Finances
Financial Advice: 5 Tips to Avoid Financial Mistakes
Factoring and Securitization of Receivables

Return of Health Articles at Hubpages

Here is a list of 17 hubs I created for The Return of Health Hubs HubMob Weekly:

1. What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Where to Buy Carpal Tunnel Splints Braces Online?

2. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Causes | Symptoms | Treatment with Elbow Splint | Surgery

3. Scoliosis: Causes | Types | Symptoms | Tests | Treatment

4. Had An Ankle Sprain in Sports - Prevent Fracture By Buying Best Ankle Brace

5. Osteoporosis - A Nightmare for Older Women

6. Anesthesia Types | General, Regional, Local, Epidural

7. What is MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)? Common Questions

8. What Are Orthopedic Braces – Where Can I Buy Orthopedic Braces Online

9. What is Arthritis - Where to Buy Braces For Arthritis?

10. What is Psoriasis | Treatment of Psoriasis | Psoriasis Versus Eczema

11. Long Term Side Effects of Adrenaline (Epinephrine)

12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Where To Buy Peppermint Oil Capsules for IBS Treatment

13. What is Distal Radius Fracture - Where to Buy a Splint for this Fracture?

14. Neuropathy: Causes | Signs and Symptoms | Treatment

15. Schizophrenia: Signs | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Five Types

16. What to Keep in Your Gym Bag – Buy Essential Workout Equipment

17. How Bone Density Test Is Done - Interpreting Bone Density Scores

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